Junk Mail:不湊個熱鬧好像不行

圓球作者有個不知該算好還是不好的習慣,要不就大家人間蒸發、不見蹤影,要不就是針對某個議題集體跳出來你一言我一語。最新的案例叫作dress code,看來我不湊個熱鬧好像不行。

針對dress code,許多人都陸續發表了看法。我突然想起,不知道有多少人真正看過dress code的內容呢?幸好,網路的好處就是長度不受限,所以,以下就是NBA官方發給球員和球隊的備忘錄原文。我們都可以花一點時間再仔細的看看。

NBA Dress Code原文

MEMO TO: NBA PLAYERS
FROM: DAVID STERN, RUSS GRANIK, ADAM SILVER, AND STU JACKSON
DATE: OCTOBER 17, 2005
RE: NBA PLAYER DRESS CODE

We know that you share our desire that NBA players be appreciated not only for their extraordinary talent and hard work, but also for their accessibility to fans, their community service, and their professionalism – both on and off the court. To that end, we will be instituting, effective with the start of the regular season, a league-wide “minimum” dress code. Many teams have previously issued their own dress codes, designed to demonstrate the seriousness with which their players take the representation of their teams, their cities, and our league; our new dress code is not intended to affect any of those that are more formal than what is set forth below:

1. General Policy: Business Casual

Players are required to wear Business Casual attire whenever they are engaged in team or league business.

“Business Casual” attire means

● A long or short-sleeved dress shirt (collared or turtleneck), and/or a sweater.

● Dress slacks, khaki pants, or dress jeans.

● Appropriate shoes and socks, including dress shoes, dress boots, or other presentable shoes, but not including sneakers, sandals, flip-flops, or work boots.

“Team or league business” includes all activity conducted on behalf of the team or the league during which the player is seen by, or interacts with, fans, business partners, members of the public, the media, or other third parties. It includes arriving at games (car or team bus to locker room), leaving games (locker room to team bus or car), attending games when not in uniform, participating in team or league events with business partners or in the community, conducting media interviews, and making promotional or other appearances.

2. Exceptions to Business Casual

There are the following exceptions to the general policy of Business Casual attire:

a. Players In Attendance At Games But Not In Uniform

Players who are in attendance at games but not in uniform are required to wear the following additional items when seated on the bench or in the stands during the game:

● Sport Coat

● Dress shoes or boots, and socks

b. Players Leaving the Arena

Players leaving the arena may wear either Business Casual attire or neat warm-up suits issued by their teams.

c. Special Events or Appearances

Teams can make exceptions to the Business Casual policy for special events or player appearances where other attire is appropriate – e.g., participation in a basketball clinic.

3. Excluded Items

The following is a list of items that players are not allowed to wear while on team or league business:

● Sleeveless shirts

● Shorts

● T-shirts, jerseys, or sports apparel (unless appropriate for the event (e.g., a basketball clinic), team-identified, and approved by the team)

● Headgear of any kind while a player is sitting on the bench or in the stands at a game, during media interviews, or during a team or league event or appearance (unless appropriate for the event or appearance, team-identified, and approved by the team)

● Chains, pendants, or medallions worn over the player’s clothes

● Sunglasses while indoors

● Headphones (other than on the team bus or plane, or in the team locker room)

We know it’s not possible to create a dress policy that will anticipate every possible situation. Our policy will therefore be interpreted in all cases to ensure that players are neatly and professionally attired, while not being unfairly burdensome.

Thank you in advance for your continued cooperation. Good luck to all for the 2005-06 season.

把這個條款解釋為種族岐視,似乎太無限上綱了一點。對我來說,這整件事很簡單,它是一個企業內部的「內規」,就像公司規定不准穿短褲、拖鞋上班,女孩子不准穿著膝上短裙、露腳趾的鞋子上班一樣。你說它煩不煩?有些規定的確很煩,但它是否違法,甚至如同某些人說的違憲?拜託,當然沒有。

最近看了不少談論dress code的文章,我對部份美國記者直指此規定為種族岐視的論調頗無法苟同。

前陣子卡崔娜颶風襲擊美國墨西哥灣區時,各大新聞網站(特別是Yahoo)曾經發生一件事。由於災區的災民等不到救援,災後數天紐奧良開始出現搶劫。爭議的是,在Yahoo News的新聞圖片中,圖說中只要出現「looting」(搶劫)這個字眼,配的照片一定是黑人,不是提著大包小包,就是剛從運動用品社走出來,手中抱著一堆Nike鞋盒。一對白人男女拎著幾袋麵包,圖說卻寫成他們正在「尋找食物」(found the food)。結果引起網路上一片撻伐,Yahoo除了出面聲明絕無種族岐視用意,迅速修正照片之外,也向外界道歉。

如果你問我,什麼叫種族岐視?這才叫作標準的種族岐視。

儘管許多人指稱NBA此舉是在打壓hip-hop文化,這也確實是值得討論的一點,卻絕對稱不上是種族岐視。一個問題是,NBA不會笨到不清楚hip-hop是使NBA歡迎度大增的關鍵元素之一,那麼它為什麼要打壓hip-hop?

合理的解釋是,NBA確實面臨形象問題。大家都說,穿著、外表無法解決形象問題,也不是形象的全部,但至少它是形象的一部份。連黑人意識十分強烈的導演Spike Lee也說,NBA此舉是為了形象問題,因為image is everything。當NBA的贊助商都認為它有形象問題,應盡速改善,即使限制穿著無法完全導正形象,NBA也不得不作改變,而David Stern身為NBA的CEO,他的職責正在此。

另一個很有趣的點是,四大職業運動中的許多球隊,早就訂有類似的dress code,如果dress code真是沖著黑人而來,為什麼獨獨只有NBA的dress code引起爭議?只因為它是全聯盟實行嗎?

話說回來,反對dress code的人當然大有人在,小牛老闆Mark Cuban就是其一。但Stern是NBA董事會聘任的執行長,如果反對聲浪如此之大,不用擔心,董事會會把他幹掉的。

有個美國記者寫得好:如果你不喜歡戴著米老鼠耳朵到處跑,就不要到狄士尼樂園應徵。另一名記者寫著:NBA球員的問題是,他們認為世界上應該有法律,但是法律不適用在他們身上。他們認為打籃球是一份工作(job),但他們不是一般的企業員工。第三個記者寫得更妙:不知為什麼,我突然想起選秀會上每個菜鳥都穿著西裝、開開心心和Stern握手的模樣…

NBA裡裡外外,對dress code有著不同的看法,民主社會就是如此。我們來看看不同球員有什麼樣的說法:

Andrei Kirilenko:

I don’t think it’s quite comfortable, but it’s probably reasonable…

Penny Hardaway:

The dress code takes some individuality out of the equation … but it’s not a bad thing.

Jalen Rose:

I’m a dresser, so it’s not going to be that much of a change for me.

OK,以上可能會被稱上是NBA官方版的發言,那麼再來看看以下的反對派發言:

Allen Iverson:

I feel like if they want us to dress a certain way, they should pay for our clothes,” he said. “It’s just tough, man, knowing that all of a sudden you have to have a dress code out of nowhere. I don’t think that’s still going to help the image of the league at all.

Jason Richardson:

You still wear a suit, you still could be a crook. You see all what happened with Enron and Martha Stewart. Just because you dress a certain way doesn’t mean you’re that way. Hey, a guy could come in with baggy jeans, a do-rag and have a Ph.D., and a person who comes in with a suit could be a three-time felon. So, it’s not what you wear, it’s how you present yourself.

Stephen Jackson:

I have no problem dressing up … because I know I’m a nice-looking guy. But as far as chains, I definitely feel that’s a racial statement. Almost 100 percent of the guys in the league who are young and black wear big chains. So I definitely don’t agree with that at all.

Antawan Jamison:

As far as when we’re traveling, I don’t see that as being necessary. We’re the first ones at the arenas so no one sees us and then we’re out of here and on a plane where no one sees us so why does it matter what we’re wearing?”

其中可能以Jason Richardson最能說清楚反對派的論點。說起來,反對派也不是全然反對dress code,他們特別注意的重點是金項鍊(chains)以及前往球場、客場旅行的途中,為什麼不能穿得舒服一點。這也不是沒有道理,所以,可以檢討的是dress code的內容,而非全盤將dress code打為種族岐視。

反對派發言中比較令人失望的是,許多人將娛樂業(entertainment)、藝人(artist)、饒舌歌手(rapper)掛在嘴上,這些球員黑、白都有,而這不恰恰說明了現在球員的心態?他們已經快將球員和藝人畫上等號。

回到根本,dress code的問題和三個基本元素有關:時代、形象、金錢。

問問老球員如Bill Russell、Bob Cousy、Clyde Frazier,他們可能將dress code視為必然,正同我們當年無奈的接受髮禁,卻沒有人到教育部外靜坐抗議,聲稱教育部違反人權一樣。確實,不同的時代和價值觀,是導致dress code爭議的一大原因,但是這無從改變。價值觀的衝突,永遠是個無解的問題。

根據NBA內部聘請2004年競選美國總統的Bush/Chaney陣營策略操盤大將Matthew Dowd調查結果,NBA的整體聯盟形象在四大職運中墊底,儘管它可能是最賺錢的聯盟之一,也儘管球員均對此嗤之以鼻。而這正是Stern緊張之處,也是dress code的來由之一。正因為NBA球員是可見度最高(most visible)的,穿著才會成為這麼大的問題。

再看看最現實的金錢面,撇開球技不談,Michael Jordan、Kobe Bryant、LeBron James、Grant Hill,之所以能成為最成功的廣告代言人,賺進大把鈔票,正因為他們小心的維護本身形象。你認為是什麼原因,讓Iverson、Sprewell的代言廣告不多呢?

我舉雙手贊同Iverson的「I am who I am」哲學,但是,作自己並不是可以為所欲為,I am who I am並不等於I can do whatever I want。我們─和NBA球員們─愈快了解這一點,dress code的爭議就愈不構成爭議。

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